Ivanhoe appoints Mark Farren as Chief Operating Officer and Steve Amos as Executive Vice President, Projects
Kamoa Copper achieves a record 34,408 tonnes of copper
floated in August
JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA – Ivanhoe Mines (TSX: IVN; OTCQX: IVPAF) Executive Co-Chair Robert Friedland and President Marna Cloete announce today the appointment of Mr. Mark Farren and Mr. Steve Amos to Ivanhoe Mines from the company’s Kamoa Copper Joint Venture in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
Mr. Farren worked at Ivanhoe Mines as Executive Vice President, Operations, between June 2014 and October 2019. As development commenced on Phase 1 of the Kamoa-Kakula Mining Complex, Mr. Farren was appointed Chief Executive Officer of the Kamoa Copper Joint Venture to lead it through construction and commissioning. Prior to joining Ivanhoe, Mr. Farren served a total of 22 years, in progressively senior roles, in the South African operations of Johannesburg-based Anglo American Platinum (Amplats), culminating in his appointment as the group’s Head of Mining. Mr. Farren returns to Ivanhoe Mines as Chief Operating Officer effective November 1, 2022.
Mr. Amos, who worked at Ivanhoe Mines from 2011 as Vice President, Metallurgy, was appointed in 2019 to the Kamoa Copper Joint Venture as Head of Projects for the DRC. Mr. Amos has over 30 years of mining industry experience, and began his career working for Anglo American, where he spent 16 years working in the areas of precious metals processing in South Africa and copper processing in Zambia. He then spent 6 years at Engineering, Procurement and Construction Management (EPCM) specialist AMEC Minproc (now part of Wood Group). Mr. Amos returns to Ivanhoe Mines, effective immediately, as Executive Vice President, Projects, and will report to Mr. Farren.
Mr. Farren and Mr. Amos oversaw the outstanding project delivery of both Kamoa-Kakula Phase 1 and Phase 2, which were both constructed during the COVID-19 pandemic, several months ahead of schedule and on budget.
Mr. Farren and Mr. Amos will continue to guide the delivery of the extensive Ivanhoe Mines project pipeline. This includes the 5.0-million-tonne-per annum Phase 3 expansion at the Kamoa-Kakula Mining Complex and accompanying direct-to-blister copper smelter with a capacity of 500,000-tonnes-per-annum. Mr. Farren and Mr. Amos have been actively involved in the early engineering and planning for both projects. In addition, they will oversee the construction of the Platreef palladium, rhodium, nickel, platinum, copper, and gold project in South Africa, and the restart of the high-grade zinc, copper, lead, germanium Kipushi mine in the DRC.
L-R) Mark Farren, incoming Ivanhoe Mines COO; Steve Amos, Ivanhoe Mines Executive Vice President, Projects; and Wimpie Steyn, Kamoa Copper Risk Control Manager, holding some of Kamoa-Kakula’s first copper concentrate in March 2021.
As previously announced, Mr. Riaan Vermeulen replaced Mr. Farren as the Managing Director of the Kamoa Copper Joint Venture in June 2022, following a transition period. Mr. Vermeulen has more than 32 years of underground and open-pit mining experience in various operational, project and technical management roles, including Acting Head of Mining: Base Metals for Anglo American. Mr. Vermeulen also worked closely with Mr. Farren at Anglo Platinum, where they designed and built Anglo Platinum’s most efficient underground mine, the Middelpunt Hill Platinum Mine in South Africa.
Mr. Vermeulen is currently overseeing the delivery of the debottlenecking program to increase the Phase 1 and 2 processing capacity from 7.6 million to 9.2 million tonnes per annum, as well as the Phase 3 Pre-Feasibility Study that is planned for release at the end of the year.
In addition, Ms. Annebel Oosthuizen was appointed as the Chief Executive, Commercial for Kamoa Copper. She joined the Kamoa-Kakula project in 2015 and has served in progressively senior roles within the finance department, most recently as Executive, Finance.
Ms. Oosthuizen has 15 years of financial management experience in the mining sector across Africa. She was appointed to Kamoa Copper’s Executive Committee in 2020 and has served a critical role in ensuring a seamless and successful transition from Kamoa-Kakula’s development phase to its operational phase, as well as the commercial management of the self-funded Phase 2 expansion and the upcoming Phase 3 and smelter expansions.
Mr. Vermeulen and Ms. Oosthuizen will serve as Ivanhoe Mines senior management designees under the Kamoa-Kakula joint-venture.
(L-R) Annebel Oosthuizen the Chief Executive, Commercial & Riaan Vermeulen the Managing Director of Kamoa Copper
Ivanhoe Mines Executive Co-Chair, Robert Friedland commented:
“Mark and Steve are exceptional leaders who have been integral in the highly successful development of the Kamoa-Kakula Mining Complex in the Democratic Republic of Congo, which now is the fastest growing copper operation on the planet. They demonstrated great ingenuity and tenacity in delivering this world-scale project, alongside our joint-venture partner Zijin Mining, on-time and on-budget despite the many challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic. They also bring a wealth of industry and operational experience across Africa. We are extremely confident that Mark and Steve will continue to build upon Ivanhoe Mines' track-record of operational excellence and industry-leading value creation, as we advance the world-scale Platreef and Kipushi projects to production and continue our journey as we become the world's next major, diversified mining company.”
Ivanhoe Mines President Marna Cloete added:
“We are very happy to welcome Mark and Steve back to the Ivanhoe family. They did a fantastic job leading large, multinational teams alongside our joint venture partners during Kamoa-Kakula's development. The experience they gained during that process will be invaluable as we embark on mine construction activities at Platreef and Kipushi. Mark and Steve have demonstrated the energy, commitment and ability needed to plan and execute world-scale construction projects, and successfully advance tier-one ore bodies to production, while also creating strong working environments built on safety, teamwork, and compassion. These appointments greatly enhance Ivanhoe’s executive team as we undertake an exciting period of industry-leading growth and development. We're also very confident that the Kamoa Copper Joint Venture remains in strong hands, with Riaan and Annebel set to guide the project through the Phase 3 expansion and smelter construction with our partners at Zijin Mining.”
Kamoa Copper floated record 34,408 tonnes of copper in August
During the month of August, Kamoa Copper milled 686,217 tonnes of ore at an average feed grade of 5.8% copper, equivalent to an annualized processing rate of approximately 8.2 million tonnes for Phase 1 and 2.
Kamoa Copper floated 34,408 tonnes of copper, a monthly record, and produced 31,150 tonnes of filtered copper in concentrate for sale. The floated copper production for the month is equivalent to an annualized production rate of approximately 405,000 tonnes of copper.
The difference between floated and filtered copper arises because of the current bottleneck in filter capacity as the Phase 1 and 2 milling and flotation circuit continues to exceed design capacity. Floated copper is temporarily stored as a slurry in a fully lined dam, which is estimated to contain approximately 6,500 tonnes of copper as at end of August, until it can be reclaimed in the concentrate thickener and filter press.
As part of the de-bottlenecking initiatives, a fourth Larox filter press from Metso Outotec of Espoo, Finland, is expected to arrive on site in the coming months for commissioning in January 2023. In the meantime, Kamoa Copper management are working on initiatives to maximize the capacity of the existing three filter presses.
Construction activities for Kamoa-Kakula’s fourth Larox concentrate filter press are advancing well. This is part of Kamoa-Kakula’s de-bottlenecking program to boost Phase 1 and Phase 2 ore throughput to 9.2 million tonnes per annum.
Structural steel and platework erection for the additional concentrate thickener. The debottlenecking program will increase annualized production to approximately 450,000 tonnes of copper in concentrate by Q2 2023.
Slope stabilization and earthworks are advancing well at the site for Kamoa-Kakula's direct-to-blister flash smelter, which is expected to be commissioned by the end of 2024.
Disclosures of a scientific or technical nature at the Kamoa-Kakula Mining Complex in this news release have been reviewed and approved by Steve Amos, who is considered, by virtue of his education, experience and professional association, a Qualified Person under the terms of NI 43-101. Mr. Amos is not considered independent under NI 43-101 as he is the Head of the Kamoa-Kakula Mining Complex. Mr. Amos has verified the technical data disclosed in this news release.
Ivanhoe has prepared an independent, NI 43-101-compliant technical report for the Kamoa-Kakula Project, which is available on the company’s website and under the company’s SEDAR profile at www.sedar.com:
- Kamoa-Kakula Integrated Development Plan 2020 dated October 13, 2020, prepared by OreWin Pty Ltd., China Nerin Engineering Co., Ltd., DRA Global, Epoch Resources, Golder Associates Africa, KGHM Cuprum R&D Centre Ltd., Outotec Oyj, Paterson and Cooke, Stantec Consulting International LLC, SRK Consulting Inc., and Wood plc.
The technical report includes relevant information regarding the assumptions, parameters and methods of the mineral resource estimates on the Kamoa-Kakula Mining Complex cited in this news release, as well as information regarding data verification, exploration procedures and other matters relevant to the scientific and technical disclosure contained in this news release.
About Ivanhoe Mines
Ivanhoe Mines is a Canadian mining company focused on advancing its three principal projects in Southern Africa: the newly expanded, mechanized, underground mines at the Kamoa-Kakula Mining Complex in the Democratic Republic of Congo, the development of the Platreef palladium-rhodium-platinum-nickel-copper-gold discovery in South Africa; and the restart of the historic Kipushi zinc-copper-germanium-silver mine, also in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Kamoa-Kakula Mining Complex is one of the highest-grade and fastest growing major copper mining operations in the world. Copper concentrates were first produced in May 2021 and, through on-going phased expansions, it is positioned to become one of the world's largest copper producing operations. Kamoa-Kakula’s 2022 production guidance is between 310,000 to 340,000 tonnes of copper in concentrate
The Kamoa-Kakula Mining Complex is powered by clean, renewable hydro-generated electricity and is among one of the world’s lowest greenhouse gas emitters per tonne of copper metal produced. Ivanhoe Mines has pledged to achieve net-zero operational greenhouse gas emissions (Scope 1 and 2) at the Kamoa-Kakula Mining Complex.
The Kamoa-Kakula Mining Complex is operated by Kamoa Copper, a joint venture between Ivanhoe Mines (39.6%), Zijin Mining Group (39.6%), Crystal River Global Limited (0.8%) and the DRC government (20%).
Ivanhoe Mines is also exploring for new copper discoveries across its circa 2,400km2 of wholly-owned exploration licences in the Western Foreland, which are located adjacent to the Kamoa-Kakula Mining Complex in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Vancouver: Matthew Keevil +1.604.558.1034
London: Tommy Horton +44 7866 913 207
Vancouver: Tanya Todd +1.604.331.9834
Certain statements in this release constitute “forward-looking statements” or “forward-looking information” within the meaning of applicable securities laws. Such statements and information involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of the company, its projects, or industry results, to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements or information. Such statements can be identified by the use of words such as “may”, “would”, “could”, “will”, “intend”, “expect”, “believe”, “plan”, “anticipate”, “estimate”, “scheduled”, “forecast”, “predict” and other similar terminology, or state that certain actions, events or results “may”, “could”, “would”, “might” or “will” be taken, occur or be achieved. These statements reflect the company’s current expectations regarding future events, performance and results and speak only as of the date of this release.
Such statements include without limitation: (i) statements that an updated pre-feasibility study for Phase 3 is scheduled for the end of 2022; (ii) statements regarding Kamoa-Kakula being the world’s fastest growing copper operation; (iii) statements regarding first copper production from Phase 3 expected in by the end of 2024; (iv) statements regarding the Phase 1 and 2 de-bottlenecking program increasing combined throughput to 9.2 million tonnes of copper concentrate per year by Q2 2023 and increasing annual copper production to more than 450,000 tonnes; (v) statements regarding floated copper production for August is equivalent to an annualized production rate of approximately 405,000 tonnes of copper; (vi) statements regarding Kamoa-Kakula will be among the world's lowest greenhouse gas emitters per unit of copper produced; (vii) statements on achieving net-zero operational greenhouse gas emissions (Scope 1 and 2) at the Kamoa-Kakula Copper Mine; (viii) statements regarding the Phase 3 expansion to include a third 5 million-tonne-per-annum concentrator; (ix) statements regarding Kamoa Copper’s first copper metal production from on-site flash smelter expected in Q4 2024; (x) statements regarding the slurry in a fully lined dam estimated to contain approximately 6,500 tonnes of copper as at end of August; (xi) statements regarding the Kamoa-Kakula smelter nameplate capacity of 500,000 tonnes a year of approximately 99%-pure blister copper; (xii) statements that a fourth Larox filter press from Metso Outotec of Espoo, Finland, is expected to arrive on site in the coming months for commissioning in January 2023; (xiii) statements regarding the Inga II Turbine #5 project being complete by Q4 2024, and providing 178 MW of hydropower to the grid; and (xiv) statements regarding equivalence to an annualized processing rate of approximately 8.2 million tonnes for Phase 1 and 2.
As well, all of the results of the Kakula definitive feasibility study, the Kakula-Kansoko pre-feasibility study and the Kamoa-Kakula preliminary economic assessment, constitute forward-looking statements or information, and include future estimates of internal rates of return, net present value, future production, estimates of cash cost, proposed mining plans and methods, mine life estimates, cash flow forecasts, metal recoveries, estimates of capital and operating costs and the size and timing of phased development of the projects. Furthermore, with respect to this specific forward-looking information concerning the development of the Kamoa-Kakula Project, the company has based its assumptions and analysis on certain factors that are inherently uncertain. Uncertainties include: (i) the adequacy of infrastructure; (ii) geological characteristics; (iii) metallurgical characteristics of the mineralization; (iv) the ability to develop adequate processing capacity; (v) the price of copper; (vi) the availability of equipment and facilities necessary to complete development; (vii) the cost of consumables and mining and processing equipment; (viii) unforeseen technological and engineering problems; (ix) accidents or acts of sabotage or terrorism; (x) currency fluctuations; (xi) changes in regulations; (xii) the compliance by joint venture partners with terms of agreements; (xiii) the availability and productivity of skilled labour; (xiv) the regulation of the mining industry by various governmental agencies; (xv) the ability to raise sufficient capital to develop such projects; (xvi) changes in project scope or design; and (xvii) political factors.
Forward-looking statements and information involve significant risks and uncertainties, should not be read as guarantees of future performance or results and will not necessarily be accurate indicators of whether or not such results will be achieved. A number of factors could cause actual results to differ materially from the results discussed in the forward-looking statements or information, including, but not limited to, the factors discussed below and under “Risk Factors”, and elsewhere in this release, as well as unexpected changes in laws, rules or regulations, or their enforcement by applicable authorities; the failure of parties to contracts with the company to perform as agreed; social or labour unrest; changes in commodity prices; and the failure of exploration programs or studies to deliver anticipated results or results that would justify and support continued exploration, studies, development or operations.
Although the forward-looking statements contained in this release are based upon what management of the company believes are reasonable assumptions, the company cannot assure investors that actual results will be consistent with these forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are made as of the date of this release and are expressly qualified in their entirety by this cautionary statement. Subject to applicable securities laws, the company does not assume any obligation to update or revise the forward-looking statements contained herein to reflect events or circumstances occurring after the date of this release.
The company’s actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of the factors set forth below in the “Risk Factors” section in the company’s 2022 Q1 MD&A and its current annual information form.
南非约翰内斯堡 — 艾芬豪矿业 (TSX: IVN; OTCQX: IVPAF) 执行联席董事长罗伯特·弗里兰德 (Robert Friedland) 和总裁玛娜·克洛特 (Marna Cloete) 今天欣然宣布，公司任命旗下位于刚果民主共和国 (以下简称“刚果(金)”) 的卡莫阿铜业合资企业的马克·法伦先生 (Mark Farren) 及史蒂夫·阿莫斯先生 (Steve Amos) 担任艾芬豪矿业的高管职位。
法伦先生于2014年6月至2019年10月期间，担任艾芬豪矿业的运营执行副总裁一职。在卡莫阿-卡库拉 (Kamoa-Kakula) 铜矿项目I 期开展建设期间，法伦先生被任命为卡莫阿铜业合资企业的首席执行官，负责带领项目进行施工直至投产。加入艾芬豪之前，法伦先生在约翰内斯堡的英美铂金南非业务部效力22年之多，期间担任不同高级职位并逐步晋升为该集团的矿业部负责人。法伦先生将于2022年11月1日正式回归艾芬豪矿业，担任首席运营官一职。
阿莫斯先生于2011年加入艾芬豪矿业担任选冶部副总裁，期后于2019年被任命为卡莫阿铜业合资企业的刚果(金)项目负责人。阿莫斯先生拥有30多年的矿业经验，最初效力于英美资源集团，在南非贵金属加工和赞比亚铜加工领域工作共16年。期后，他在领先的工程、采购和施工管理 (EPCM) 公司 AMEC Minproc (现为Wood Group旗下公司)工作6年多。阿莫斯先生已正式重返艾芬豪矿业担任项目执行副总裁，并将向法伦先生汇报。
尽管受到COVID-19疫情的打击，法伦先生和阿莫斯先生成功地带领卡莫阿-卡库拉I 期和II 期项目在预算之内、比原计划提前数月投产。
法伦先生和阿莫斯先生将继续指导艾芬豪矿业旗下各大项目，其中包括卡莫阿-卡库拉铜矿项目的500万吨/年III 期扩建以及年产50万吨的直接粗铜冶炼厂。法伦先生和阿莫斯先生一直都有积极参与这两个项目的早期工程设计和规划工作。此外，他们将会监督南非普拉特瑞夫 (Platreef) 钯-铑-镍-铂-铜金矿项目的建设工程，以及推进位于刚果(金)的基普什 (Kipushi) 高品位锌-铜-铅-锗矿重启商业化生产。
(从左至右)﹕艾芬豪矿业新任首席运营官马克·法伦、艾芬豪矿业项目副总裁史蒂夫·阿莫斯，以及卡莫阿铜业风险控制经理威比·斯泰恩(Wimpie Steyn) 手持卡莫阿-卡庫拉的首批銅精礦 (2021年3月)。
正如之前公布，瑞安·魏美伦 (Riaan Vermeulen) 先生在交接期后已于2022年6月正式接替法伦先生，成为卡莫阿铜业合资企业的新任总经理。魏美伦先生在井下和露天采矿方面拥有超过32 年的经验，曾担任生产运营、项目管理和技术管理等方面的高级职务，包括英美资源集团基本金属部的执行主管。魏美伦先生效力英美铂金期间，与法伦先生合作无间，共同设计及建造了英美铂金最高效的地下矿山 — 位于南非的Middelpunt Hill 铂金矿。
魏美伦先生目前正在监督项目的技改工程，旨在将 I 期和 II 期选厂的综合设计产能从760万吨/年提升至920万吨/年，同时正进行 III 期的预可行性研究，预计于年底发表。
此外，卡莫阿铜业任命安妮贝尔·奥斯图伊森女士 (Annebel Oosthuizen) 出任商务总监一职。奥斯图伊森女士于2015年加入卡莫阿-卡库拉项目，在财务部担任不同职位逐步晋升至财务主管。
奥斯图伊森女士在非洲矿业界拥有15年的财务管理经验，于2020年被任命为卡莫阿铜业的执行委员会成员，在确保卡莫阿-卡库拉从开发至生产运营阶段的顺利无缝衔接以及自筹资金的 II 期扩建和即将开展的III期扩建和冶炼厂建设都发挥了关键性的作用。
本新闻稿中关于卡莫阿-卡库拉铜矿项目的科学或技术性披露已经由史蒂夫·阿莫斯 (Steve Amos) 审查和批准，他凭借其教育、经验和专业协会会籍被认为是NI 43-101 标准下的合资格人。由于阿莫斯先生是卡莫阿-卡库拉铜矿项目的负责人，因此他并不符合NI 43-101 对独立人士的界定。阿莫斯先生已核实本新闻稿所披露的技术数据。
艾芬豪已经为卡莫阿-卡库拉项目编制了一份符合NI 43-101 标准的独立技术报告，该报告可在艾芬豪网站以及SEDAR 网站上的艾芬豪页面获得，网址为www.sedar.com﹕
- 2020年10月13日发布的2020年卡莫阿-卡库拉综合开发方案，由OreWin Pty Ltd.、中国瑞林工程技术有限公司、DRA Global、Epoch Resources、Golder Associates Africa、KGHM Cuprum R&D Centre Ltd.、Outotec Oyj、Paterson and Cooke、Stantec Consulting International LLC、SRK Consulting Inc.以及Wood plc编制。
卡莫阿-卡库拉铜矿项目由艾芬豪矿业 (占股39.6%)、紫金矿业集团 (占股39.6%)、晶河全球 (占股0.8%) 及刚果(金)政府 (占股20%) 的合资企业卡莫阿铜业负责运营。
同时，艾芬豪矿业正在刚果民主共和国境内、毗邻卡莫阿-卡库拉项目的西部前沿 (Western Foreland) 探矿权内寻找新的铜矿资源。西部前沿探矿权占地2,400平方公里，由艾芬豪矿业全资拥有。
温哥华﹕马修·基维尔 (Matthew Keevil)，电话﹕+1.604.558.1034
伦敦﹕托米·霍顿 (Tommy Horton) ，电话﹕+44 7866 913 207
温哥华﹕坦尼娅·托德 (Tanya Todd) ，电话﹕+1.604.331.9834
本新闻稿载有的某些陈述可能构成适用证券法所订议的"前瞻性陈述"或"前瞻性信息"。这些陈述及信息涉及已知和未知的风险、不确定性和其他因素，可能导致本公司的实际业绩、表现或成就、其项目或行业的业绩，与前瞻性陈述或信息所表达或暗示的任何未来业绩、表现或成就产生重大差异。这些陈述可通过文中使用"可能"、"将会"、"会"、"将要"、"打算"、"预期"、"相信"、"计划"、"预计"、"估计"、 "安排" 、"预测"、"预言"及其他类似用语，或者声明"可能"、"会"、"将会"、"可能会"或"将要"采取、发生或实现某些行动、事件或结果进行识别。这些陈述仅反映本公司于本新闻稿发布当日对于未来事件、表现和业绩的当前预期。
该等陈述包括但不限于﹕(i) 关于III期的更新版预可行性研究将于2022年底发表的陈述；(ii) 关于卡莫阿-卡库拉是全球发展最迅速的铜矿山的陈述；(iii) 关于预计III期将于2024年底实现首批铜生产的陈述；(iv) 关于技改方案完成后，预计到2023年第二季度，I期和I期选厂的总产能将提升至920万吨/年，年产铜将超过45万吨的陈述；(v) 关于8月份的浮选铜产量相当于约40.5万吨铜的年化产能的陈述；(vi) 关于卡莫阿-卡库拉将会成为全球单位铜温室气体排放最低的矿山之一的陈述；(vii) 关于卡莫阿-卡库拉铜矿项目将致力实现净零运营温室气体排放 (范围一和二) 的陈述；(viii) 关于 III 期扩建将包括第三座产能500万吨/年选厂的陈述；(ix) 关于卡莫阿铜业的现场冶炼厂预计于2024年第四季度生产首批铜金属的陈述；(x) 关于浮选铜以浆体状储存在一个衬砌水坝内，预计到8月底将存有约6,500吨铜的陈述；(xi) 关于卡莫阿-卡库拉冶炼厂的设计产能达50万吨/年、含铜99%粗铜的陈述；(xii) 关于芬兰美卓奥图泰公司制造的第四台Larox压滤机预计于未来几个月运抵矿场，并将于2023年1月进行试车的陈述；(xiii) 关于英加二期水电站5号涡轮机组的项目将于2024年第四季度完成，将为国家电网提供178兆瓦清洁水电的陈述；以及(xiv) 关于相当于I期和II期约820万吨铜的年化产能的陈述。
此外，卡库拉铜矿最终可行性研究、卡库拉-卡索科预可行性研究以及卡莫阿-卡库拉项目初步经济评价的所有结果均构成了前瞻性陈述或信息，并包括内部收益率的未来估算、净现值，未来产量、现金成本估算、建议开采计划和方法、估计矿山服务年限、现金流预测、金属回收率、资本和运营成本估算，以及项目分期开发的规模和时间点。另外，对于与卡莫阿-卡库拉铜矿项目开发有关的特定前瞻性信息，公司是基于某些不确定因素而作出假设和分析。不确定因素包括：(i) 基础设施的充足性；(ii) 地质特征；(iii) 矿化的选冶特征；(iv) 发展充足选矿产能的能力；(v) 铜价格；(vi) 完成开发所需的设备和设施的可用性；(vii) 消耗品和采矿及选矿设备的费用；(viii) 不可预见的技术和工程问题；(ix) 事故或破坏或恐怖主义行为；(x) 货币波动； (xi) 法例修订；(xii) 合资企业伙伴对协议条款的遵守情况；(xiii) 熟练劳工的人手和生产率；(xiv) 各政府机构对矿业的监管；(xv) 筹集足够资金以发展该等项目的能力；(xvi) 项目范围或设计更变；以及 (xvii) 政治因素。